Thursday, 1 December 2016

Suburban condenser. A spatial, social and ecological framework for the concentrated growth of an expanding city

This project is also published here:

An urban answer to the misfortunes of dispersed, fragmented, uncontrolled and alienating suburbia. 


Suburbia in the UK is experiencing turbulent transformations. From being an idyllic habitation for homogenous, relatively affluent middle class, it has become a complex reflection of political, social and economic processes in the urban cores – gentrification, a property bubble and housing shortage. As a result, more and more households are being expelled out from the inner areas into suburbs and then, further out to the fringes. In the face of the increasing influx of population and scarcity of land, project proposes a linear suburbanisation - a concentrated, medium-density but high-intensity development which uses the land effectively and creates diverse built environment alongside the infrastructure. By exploiting the most basic urban elements and typologies such as street, perimeter block and courtyard building, and placing them in a dialogue with a natural setting, a new type of suburbia emerges.


• UK LAND USE. 7 % of UK area is urban (including infrastructure), 70 % is farmland.(1)
• WHAT THE URBAN AREAS ARE MADE OF? Only 2 % of urban areas are buildings. 54 % is green space (gardens, parks, etc.).(2)
• UK POPULATION. 64 million. 83 % of the UK population live in cities.(3)
• SUBURBAN LIFESTYLE. 15 % of city population live in an inner city, while 85 % live in outer suburbs.
• THE AGE OF LONELINESS. 29 % of the UK population live alone. 1 million older people live alone.(4)
• LOVE OF GARDENING. 90 % have a garden (including communal).(5)
• WORK AT HOME. From 30 million workers 4 million work from home.(6)
• AUTOMOBILE DEPENDENCY. 36% of the UK population commute to work by car. The average UK commute is 54 minutes.(7)
• UK’S HOUSING CRISIS. UK housing shortage is almost 1 million homes.(8)


The project draws a mental framework to the set of spatial, social and environmental issues of outer suburbia and its relationship with the inner city (9):
• Rising and ageing population,
• Housing shortage,
• Increasing poverty and precariousness,
• Social isolation and reduced connectivity,
• Economic, cultural and ethnic segregation,
• Car dependency, poor public transport, increasing road traffic congestion,
• Land-consuming, sprawling development and controversial green belts.


Unwillingness to build high and densely, inability to accommodate empty homes, complexities of brownfield redevelopment and scarcity of land have led to a development of ever increasing expanding of UK cities. However, Green belts designated to limit urban sprawl are now the challenge for both the politicians and developers. 

Green Belts around the British cities are designated for:
• making a distinction between rural and urban,

• preventing from urban sprawl and conurbation,
• providing access to open green space.


London's Metropolitan Green Belt policy has several significant drawbacks. Firstly, an inefficient use of land. For instance, intensive farming (more than a third of the land (11)) on the edge of the metropolis has no significant economic or environmental benefits. Secondly, this comes at the expense of more valuable development and leads to its 'leapfrogging' and displacement beyond the Green Belt. (12) Finally, all these factors contribute to longer commuting between London and its satellites. Created with positive intentions in the 50s, Green Belt today aggravates prolonged problems of suburbia such as reduced connectivity, accessibility to services and traffic congestion. The arcadian vision of suburbia must be reviewed.

Current condition. Greater London enclosed by London Orbital Motorway and London Green Belt (schematic diagram).

The project proposes infrastructure integrated development within preserved yet transformed Green Belt.


Aerial view. London Orbital Motorway (M25)and A3 junction. The project rethinks the old ideas of Metro-land in a contemporary context.
Birds eye view
Suburban condenser defines a clear edge between Nature and build environment. At the same time, by being porous, it allows the Nature flow through.



SC uses infrastructure as a form-defining armature which supports chain-link enclaves and is perforated with heterotopic voids. (13)

Basic module exploits the traditional, normative 600ft pedestrian armature between centres.(14)

A city is a plane of tarmac with some red hot spots of urban intensity.

Rem Koolhaas, The Surface, 1969

First page of the manuscript of Rem Koolhaas’s The Surface (1969)

Axonometric view

Infrastructure has a clear functional, scale and speed hierarchy. As such it does not have a segregating effect on communities. 
Infrastructure is an integral part of the formation and its footprint ratio to entire development is minimised.

Heterotopic voids provide a space for uncertainty, endless possibilities and transformations for the future development. They are landmarks and nodes within the continuous framework.

Heterotopic void. Nature: park / forest / meadow

Heterotopic void. Intensification: housing infill

Heterotopic void. Industry / service / retail: sheds, warehouses, shopping centre

Heterotopic void. Football field: games, concerts, events

Enclave / neighbourhood.
The enclave is a self-organising system which accommodates the private sphere - housing, business and retail activities, incorporate communal life and embraces the public sphere. By using uniformity and repetition, equality is ensured yet it is diversified by its context and inhabitants – heterogenous and egalitarian society.

Enclave section. 

SC is a built environment where:
Public sphere is provided for knowledge and social exchange.
Co-working and work from home are supported by providing facilities next to the living space.
Different housing typologies offer accommodation for a diverse spectrum of households.
Spaces are adaptable and extendable by using flexible modules, layouts and structure.

Typology of units. 

The edge. Allotments. 

Town square / courtyard.

The street view.

The upper street.

A workshop on ground level.

Studio flat on 1st level.


1. Mark Easton, The great myth of urban Britain
2. Ibid.
3. United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects 
Urban population <>
4. Kim Walker, Loneliness in the UK

5. Christopher Hope More than two million British homes without a garden The Telegraph
6. Characteristics of Home Workers, (The Office for National Statistics, 2014)
7. 36% of the UK population still drive to work, only 3% cycle 
8. David Kingman Britain’s housing crisis in 3 numbers
9. Some data is taken from: Paul Hunter, Towards an suburban renaissance: an agenda for our city suburbs (The Smith Institute, 2016)
10. Tom Papworth. The green noose. An analysis of Green Belts and proposals for reform (Adam Smith Research Trust, 2015)
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Three primary urban elements - armature, enclave and heterotopia are the terminology used by David G. Shane in Recombinant urbanism : conceptual modelling in architecture, urban design, and city theory (John Wiley & Sons, 2005)
14. Ibid.

Friday, 27 May 2016

Heterotopic grid. Summary

This collage concludes my thesis work. I have reflected on my year long journey and have summarised the most important guidelines which have framed this project. Behind this is a theoretical background containing authors: Michel Foucault, David Graeme Shane, Rem Koolhaas, DOGMA, Superstudio and many others. 

Tuesday, 24 May 2016

Heterotopic grid. The other dwelling in the Green Belt.

The thesis investigates the potential of using the heterotopic (other, different) grid as a conceptual and formal framework for a utopian vision - accommodating increasing growth of Scotland’s population in a concentrated and equal manner within a highly infrastructural Green Belt on the city edge of Edinburgh. ‘City edge’ is one of the designated sectors within the Glasburgh corridor – a speculative research area between Edinburgh and Glasgow, defined by the infrastructure of the motorway M8 and the Shotts Line railway.
The competition project ‘Exodus or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture’ and several works by Superstudio and DOGMA inhere heterotopic qualities by being able to create utopian visions and simultaneously reflect and redefine conditions of a real, existing society.
The thesis draws parallels between the cultural, social and political issues of the others on one side and the accompanying urban processes and the role of Architecture within them on the other. It also highlights a set of questions which interrelate with each other on the basis of the concept of heterotopia and the heterotopic grid.
How could the heterotopic grid intensify, diversify and in the same time preserve the Green Belt?
How could the heterotopic grid be able to accept and embrace different social groups within a homogeneity of housing context and create an egalitarian community?
How could the heterotopic grid operate as the catalyst of utopian visions?

The result is a formation which defines a clear edge to the city by framing the Green Belt around it. At the same time, it preserves what it frames and by being porous, it allows nature, infrastructure, and people to flow through. The singular unit of the heterotopic grid is a social condenser – a micro-city where the main urban components – enclave, armature, and heterotopia are condensed and manifested into one entity.

Full thesis text:

Thesis drawings:

Thursday, 10 December 2015

Ivan LĂ©onidov, Competition entry for the socialist city of Magnitogorsk

‘A socialist settlement is a properly thought out organisation of industry and agriculture, culture and leisure:  of everything that informs human consciousness and life. It is a settlement constructed on the basis of the foremost socialist technology.’

Ivan Leonidov, Explanatory notes on the OSA team’s project

Leonidov like many of his contemporaries of Modernism had a social vision apart from a purely architectural drive. In the competition entry for the socialist settlement at Magnitogorsk, he tests new social patterns of living within strictly organised functional zoning.

Magnitogorsk is an industrial city located in Russia on the eastern side of the
Ural Mountains and surrounded by many lakes

The design comprises a linear development located between chemical and metallurgical combine and a giant collective farm. The city starts from an industrial node and its development is possible in two or four orthogonal directions. The Linear City consists of a strip of residential complexes and two strips of ancillary functions on both sides of the housing zone.

A part of the Linear City

Each housing complex is intended for 250 people living in eight separate housing units, each for 32 people. Units could be allocated both individually and stacked in towers. The children’s sector is located in the green zone between two residential complexes. Ancillary functions are represented by public buildings and places such as the community hall, sports facilities, parks, zoological and botanical gardens. The highway on one side is for transport and also serves as border and stimulus for further development. 

Hierarchy of rooms

The housing unit is the main component in this scheme which is repeated throughout the city on a chequerboard pattern in order to create each separate complex. Each unit is intended as a small community. It consists of sixteen small private rooms located in the corners of the units on two levels with communal space in the centre of the unit. Leonidov and his group propose an idea of dis-urbanisation where living and social activities take place in proximity to nature. Linear city is ‘a new form of human settlement which eliminates rural backwardness and isolation from the world, and the anti- human concentration of vast masses of people into large cities.’ It embodies many ‘ideals’ of modern living – spaciousness, unobscured views and green surroundings where labour, leisure and socialisation could occur.

Saturday, 26 September 2015

'The Architecture of the City' by Aldo Rossi

'Whereas the humanist conception attempted an integration of subject and object, the modernist conception polemically attempted their separation. The problematic nature of the practice of modern architecture with respect to the theory of modernism has to do precisely with its inability to effect this separation and thus its contamination with imperatives from the humanist conception.'  p.5

'Rather, history becomes analogous to a "skeleton" whose condition serves as a measure of time and, in turn, is measure by time. It is skeleton which bears the imprint of the actions that have taken place and will take a place in the city.' p.5

'The two main permanences in the city are housing and monuments. With respect to the first, Rossi distinguishes between housing and individual houses. Housing is a permanence in the city while individual houses are not; thus, a residential district in the city may persist as such over many centuries, while individual houses within a district will tend to change. With respect to monuments, the relationship is the opposite, for here it is the individual artifact that persists in the city.' p.6

'Urban studies never attribute sufficient importance to research dealing with singular urban artifacts. By ignoring them - precisely those aspects of reality that are most individual, particular, irregular, and also most interesting - we end up constructing theories as artificial as they are useless.' p.21

Wednesday, 9 September 2015

'Le Corbusier; Ideas and forms' by William J R Curtis

Le Corbusier certainly is a key figure in 20th Century Architecture. He was a visionary whose ideas and projects left deep traces in the history and had a long lasting yet controversial impact on the future development of architecture and the society it was created for.
"Le Corbusier: ideas and forms" is an extensive documentary on his philosophy, urban visions and realised architecture. Here are some interesting quotes from this book.

'Although he never constructed his ideal city in toto, he did treat individual buildings as demonstrations of urbanistic ideas.' p.8 

'He tried to abstract principles from tradition, and to distil these into a formal system with its own rules of appropriateness.' p.8

'Le Corbusier worked from general to particular and from particular to general when solving problems.' p.11


About Carthusian monastery near Galluzo he wrote:
'Yesterday I went to see Chartreuse... there I found a unique solution to workers' housing. But it will be difficult to duplicate the landscape. oh those monks, what lucky fellows.' p. 22

'Many of the ideas were derived from Camillo Sitte's Der Stadtbau of 1889, which had stressed the need for intimate complexity in the placement of buildings, squares and streets, and which had been heavily illustrated with examples from medieval Italy.' p.30